This is based on an exciting and delightful class conducted by our beloved Shaykh, Al-Faqeeh, Abu Abdillaah Muhammad ibn Hizaam Al-Ba’daani -may Allaah preserve him and benefit by way of him Islaam and the Muslims-
Abu Abdillaah -may Allah preserve him him- begins:
In the name of Allah, The Most Merciful, Bestower of Mercy
All Praise and thanks belong to Allah, alone. We praise Him and we thank Him. We seek His aid and forgiveness. We seek refuge with Allah from the evil of ourselves and our actions. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshiped except Allah, alone without any partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad (may peace and blessings be upon him and his family) is His slave and messenger.
Q1: Why is Eid called ‘Eid?
Answer: Everything that is taken by people as a practice; in the form of a gathering, a prayer or anything else that is adopted as a yearly custom is called ‘Eid’
Q2: How many Eid’s do The Muslims have?
Answer: The Muslims have two Eids: Eid Al-Fitr and Eid Al-Adha and Ayaam Al-Tashreeq (which follows Eid Al-Adha) and the Day of Arafat. This day has been mentioned in some narrations of hadith within Ayaam Al-Tashreek. However most narrations do not mention it. It is an Eid for those who are performing Hajj.
Q3: What is the ruling of fasting the day of Eid Al-Fitr and the day of Eid Al-Adha?
Answer: Fasting these two days is forbidden with the consensus of The Scholars. This is because The Prophet forbade fasting two days. The day of Eid Al-Adha and the day of Eid Al-Fitr.
Q4: Is it Haram to fast the Day of Jumuah?
Answer: It is Haram to fast the Day of Jumuah, if singled out. This is because of the hadith of Abu Huraira in Al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Prophet peace be upon him said. ‘Do not fast the day of Jumuah except if you fast the day before it or the day after it’. A group of scholars understood this prohibition to mean that it is disliked. However a prohibition in the religion usually means it is forbidden (i.e. Haram.)
Q5: What is the ruling of taking Al-Ghusl (a ritual bath) before going to the Eid Prayer?.
Answer: Taking a ritual bath before going to the Eid Prayer is recommended. Although The Hadith that mentions that The Prophet would make ghusl on the Two Eids is weak; it is recommended because it removes from the body that which may harm others; such as odour and filth. And this is recommended because he is attending a gathering of Muslim – similar to The Jumuah. It has also been authenticated (By Imam Malik and ibn Abee Shaibah and other than them) that the son of umar ibn Al-Khattab used to perform ghusl and proceed to the place of prayer (on Eid).
It has also been authenticated by Al-Bauhaqee that Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) was asked about ghusl, so he said make it everyday if you wish. Then it was said O Leader of the Believers, He means The Recommended Ghusl of the Prophet of Allah. He said ‘The Day of Jummuah, The Day of Al-Adhaa, The Day of Al-Fitr and the day of Al-Arafat’ – Four’. So this shows that the recommendation of this ghusl was known.
Q6: If a person perform ghusl the day or night before Al-Jumuah and wakes up clean and unsweaty. Does he have to make Al-Ghusl?
Answer: He makes wudhu and this is sufficient for him. This is because the point is that he goes to The Prayer clean and pure without causing harm to others.
Q7: What is it recommended for him to do before going to The Prayer?
Answer: It is recommended for him to eat dates before going to The Prayer of Eid Al-Fitr, due to the hadith of Anas in Al-Bukhari. ‘The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not go to the place of prayer until he ate dates. And he would eat them individually. And in another narration it mentions he would eat them in odd numbers. The Scholars mention this was in order to differ and distinguish this day from the days of fasting.
As for Al-Eid Al-Adha it is recommended for him to delay eating until returns from The Prayer and to eat from his sacrifice. This is, if it is easy and without difficulty. For example, he is able to slaughter quickly in order to eat promptly. And it is not difficult for him to wait until he returns to eat.
This is in accordance with the action of The Prophet (may peace be upon him) as reported in the hadith of Al-Barra and Aisha and other than them; that he did not eat until he returned. And when he returned he would it from his sacrifice
Q8: From what time can The Eid Prayer be offer?
Answer: The Eid Prayer can be prayed after the time it is forbidden to pray has passed (Sunrise). This is based upon the hadith of Abdullah ibn Busar; that he went out to the people when time of praying voluntary prayers had entered and revoked the slowness of The Imam and said we made this time free for The Prayer. And the time ends with the entrance of the other time it is disliked to pray – before the Dhur Prayer by approximately 15 minutes. Although this occasionally increases and decreases slightly.
Some Scholars have mentioned it is recommended to slightly bring forward the Eid Al-Adha Prayer and to slightly the delay the Eid Al-Fitr Prayer. The latter is in order to enable the people to pay their Zakat Al-Fitr. Likewise, bringing The Eid Al-Adha Prayer forward provides sufficient time for slaughtering. All things considered; The Eid Prayer can be prayed after the time it is disliked to prayer has passed (Sunrise) and time ends with the entrance of the other time it is disliked to pray – before the Dhur Prayer by approximately 15 minutes, whether The Prayer is slightly brought forward or delayed.
There is nothing wrong with taking into consideration the interests of the people with regards to timing. This is taken from what The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to do for the Isha Prayer; whereby if the people had gathered he would commence The Prayer and if they delayed, he would delay the commencement of the Prayer. This was reported by Jabir in a hadith recorded by both Imam Al-Bukhari and Imam Muslim. Thus, there is no harm in taking into consideration the interests of the people in that which does not oposse The Sunnah of The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him)
Q9. If the people found out that it was ‘Eid around 9/10 am (forenoon)?
Answer: They go out at that time and pray.
Q10: And if they didn’t know it was ‘Eid except after midday?
Answer: They break their fasts that day and they delay the Salāh up until the following day due to hadīth Abī ‘Umayr (May Allah be pleased with him): A group of riders came to the Prophet (may peace and blessings be upon him) claiming to have seen the new moon yesterday, So the Prophet (may peace and blessings be upon him) said: “O Bilal, order the people to break their fasts, and upon waking up the following morning to leave out to their Musallā, so break fast and stand the following day in Salāh, and it is not prayed after midday(zawāl).”
Q11: The one who came late and missed the Salāh fi l-jamā’ah, is it for him to pray with a 2nd jamaa’ah, providing there is still time remaining?
Answer: Yes, he prays with the 2nd jamā’ah if found.
Q12: If not found, can he pray alone?
Answer: Yes, he prays alone if he doesnt find a jamā’ah, the Salāh is not left.
Q13: What’s the ruling of the ‘Eid prayer?
Answer: The correct opinion is that it’s wājib due to the Prophets’ (may peace and blessings be upon him) statement: “Order the people to break their fasts and when they awaken the following morning to depart to their musallā”
And also due to hadīth Um ‘atiyah in al-Bukhārī and Muslim she said: we were ordered to go out for both the ‘Eids (i.e. to the musallā), even the one on her period and the shy one (woman that hasn’t married and often stays indoors) they come out to witness the Salāh with the people. So this is evidence indicating to its Wujūb.
Some mention wujūb kifā-ī (i.e. if some of the people prayed then its not wājib upon the rest) and this statement requires stronger evidence as the Prophet (may peace and blessings be upon him) ordered everyone with the salāh, so the wujūb remains upon everyone.
Q14: Is it wājib upon the women to leave and pray with the people also?
Answer: Majority of the people of knowledge didn’t see the to be wājib, to the extent where Ibn Rajab mentioned: “It’s not known from anyone that they’ve said the women leaving out the musallā is wājib”
However what’s apparent is that the command of the Prophet (may peace and blessings be upon him) includes the women, so long as it’s easy for them and there is a specific place for them to pray away from any free mixing. As for if this is not made easy then for them is to pray in their homes.
So the scholars have understood the command regarding the women to be sunnah mustahabbah due to none of the salaf mentioning wujūb.
Shaykh l-Islām mentions: “it could be wājib” but it’s as though he’s uncertain in the affair most likely due not finding any of the salaf saying it’s waajib.
Q15: If ‘Eid and Jumu’ah were to fall on the same day, is jumu’ah be left off?
Answer: The person prays ‘Eid and for him is to pray jumu’ah or he prefers he prays dhuhr as for there being no salāh completely then this statement is weak and far fetched as the Prophet (may peace and blessings be upon him) says: Five prayers Allāh as written for the slave (made obligatory) in every day and night.
It was said: “Is upon me other than these 5?” to which the Prophet (may peace and blessings be upon him) responded “no, except that which you come with voluntarily”. So even Jumu’ah dhuhr was not dropped rather jumu’ah just stood in it’s place and this scenario likewise. And it’s incumbent upon the Imam to hold jumu’ah as for attending it then it’s closer to the sunnah to attend as the Prophet (may peace and blessings be upon him) verily we combine, so whomever wills from you, for him is to combine, and if he wills he doesn’t.
And it has come from Uthmān ibn ‘Affān (as is in al-Bukhārī) that he gave a khutbah saying in it, verily this is a day that in it 2 eids have been combined so whomever wanted to stay for both then for him is to do so and whoever preferred to return to his family then it has been permitted for him to do so.
And in Muslim from the hadeeth of an-Nu’mān ibn basheer that he used to recite in the ‘Eid and Jumu’ah prayer sūrah a’lā and al-ghāshiyah and if they were to coincided in 1day he also lead with them in both the salāhs.
And as for hadīth ibn ‘Abbās (reported by Abī Dāwud) that ibn Zubayr on ‘Eid day didn’t leave to lead the people in prayer, so the people went to ‘Abdullāh ibn ‘Abbās informing him of what happened, to which ibn ‘Abbās responded: “He acted by the Sunnah” (left off jumu’ah and prayed dhuhr in his house, that’s permisible).
As for what indicates to dhuhr still being prayed, the fact that the sahābah when Ibn Zubayr didn’t come out to lead them, they prayed dhuhr individually and Ibn ‘Abbas didn’t criticise them for that and say “why did you pray? there’s no salāh upon you” however it’s best to pray dhuhr in jamā’ah in this case.
Q16. How does the woman pray (Salātu l-‘eid)?
Answer: The same way the man prays:
-7 Takbeerāt in the first rak’ah
-5 in the second
If it’s easy for her to leave to the musallā then this is best for her as the musallā is sunnah as for the masjid then this is not from the sunnah as the Prophet (may peace and blessings be upon him) left his masjid and his masjid the salāh is equivelant to 1000 salawāt in other than it, for this reason it’s mustahab to pray in the musallā except if it’s made difficult due to things like: severe cold; rain; fear and that along those lines or also if they don’t find/ have a musallāh then they pray in the masjid.
Q17: If he enters the musallā is it upon him pray Tahiyyatu l-masjid(i.e. 2raka’āt before sitting down)?
Answer: There is no Tahiyyatu l-masjid for entering a musallā, the person just sits.
Q20. Does the takbeer have a specific format?
The person does takbeer in any manner that has authentically been established:
– From Ibn ‘Umar:
“Allahu Akbar x4
Wa lillāhi l-hamd”
– Ibn ‘Abbās:
“Allāhu Akbar x3
Allāhu Akbaru kabīrā
Allāhu Akbaru takbīrā
Allāhu Akbaru wa Ajall”
“Allāhu Akbar x3
Allāhu Akbar kabīrā
And one of the more popular forms:
Allāhu Akbar x3
Lā ilāha illā Allāh
Allāhu Akbar x2
Wa lillāhi l-hamd
Allāhu Akbar kabīrā
Wa l-hamdu lillāhi kathīrā
Wa subhān Allāhi bukratan wa asīlā
Lā ilāha illā Allāh wahdahu
Wa nasara abdahu
Wa a’azza jundahu
Wa hazamal-Ahzāb wahdahu
Lā ilāha illā Allāh la na’budu illā iyyāhu
Mukhlisīna wa lahu d-deena wa law kariha l-kāfirūn”
This format was reported by Imām Shāfi’ī (may Allāh have mercy upon him) in his book (Al-Umm), and so this reporting spread amongst those upon the shāfi’ī madhhab and saying this format is not a problem provided the person doesn’t see it to be the only correct one, as no-one should criticized for coming with any of these formats because they’re all authentic, rather variating between the different formats is preferable just in case someone thinks a specific one is correct and begins to stick to one.
Q21. Relative to the takbīrāt, is it general (no specific time) or after the Salawāt only? Especially ‘Eidu l-Adhā
Answer: It has no specific time and is to be done any time in the day, except that after every salāh due to the muslims meeting in one place it became more popular, also the sahābah encouraged it as it’s a time that the muslims are gathered and meet so it’s good to do takbeer in it.
Translated by : Abu Talha Ubaydullaah Al-Jamaiki & Abu Isma’eel Saami Al-Ghaani