Answered by Shaykh Abul ‘Ataa Ahmad Banaja (may Allah preserve him)
What is the ruling of making up the missed fast of Ramadhan on Friday (that is singling out Friday)? If she already did this, Is it valid?
No one should fast only on Friday (singling out Friday) for any kind of fasting unless you add another day to it. But singling out Friday for making up the fast of Ramadan, is not allowed. It is because of the Hadith of Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه that the Prophet ﷺ said:
(1144) لا يصومَنَّ أحدُكم يومَ الجُمُعةِ، إلَّا يومًا قَبْلَه أو بَعْدَه” رواه البخاري (1985)، ومسلم“
“No one shall fast on Friday except he fasts a day before or after it.”
Also, another narration comes from Juwairiyah Bint Al-Haarith رضي الله عنها, that:
أنَّ النَّبيَّ صلَّى اللهُ عليه وسلَّم دخل عليها يومَ الجُمُعةِ وهي صائمةٌ، فقال: أصُمْتِ أمسِ؟ قالت: لا، قال: تُريدينَ أن تصومي غدًا؟ قالت: لا، قال: فأفطِري, رواه البخاري 1986
“Prophet ﷺ entered her house on Friday and she was fasting. Then He ﷺ asked: “Did you fast Yesterday?” She said: “No.” He ﷺ said: “Do you want to fast tomorrow?” She said: “No.” He ﷺ said: “Then, break your fast.”
From this Hadith, we know that the Prophet ﷺ didn’t ask her for details of her fasting, whether it was for Kaffaarah, or Nadr or making up for missed fasts in Ramadan. When she said “No”, the Prophet ﷺ ordered her to break her fasting.
That’s why we say it’s not allowed to single-out Fridays in fasting without any valid reason. But, if there is a reason to fast only on Friday, for example; the Day of ‘Arafah or ‘Aashurah coincided with it, or he is someone who fasts every other day, and his day of fasting coincided with Friday, then this is EXEMPTED from the prohibition.
In making up missed fasting of Ramadan, she is able to make up the fasts on other days of week, so it’s not allowed for her to fast ONLY on Friday to make it up.
But, as for the questioner, if she already did this, her fast is valid, because she was unaware of this ruling, but she must not repeat it again.
And I would like to add an extra benefit for the reason of prohibition in fasting on Friday alone. Which is because Friday is the weekly Eid for the Muslims. Just like we are not allowed to fast the Eid (Fitr & Adha), we are not allowed to fast the Eid of Friday as well. While fasting on Friday is allowed under the circumstance mentioned above, is as a mercy from Allah for those that needed.
Another benefit is other than singling out fasting on Friday, Qiyam in the night of Friday alone takes the same rule which is not allowed for the below narration of Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه that the Prophet ﷺ said:
لَا تَخْتَصُّوا لَيْلَةَ الجُمُعَةِ بقِيَامٍ مِن بَيْنِ اللَّيَالِي، وَلَا تَخُصُّوا يَومَ الجُمُعَةِ بصِيَامٍ مِن بَيْنِ الأيَّامِ، إِلَّا أَنْ يَكونَ في صَوْمٍ يَصُومُهُ أَحَدُكُمْ. رواه مسلم 1144
“Do not single out the night (preceding) Friday among the nights for prayer and do not single out Friday among days for fasting but only when anyone among you is accustomed to fast (on dates) which coincide with this day (Friday).”